Liquefaction accomplishes the swelling and hydration
of the starch granules so that the thermal-stable alpha amylase enzyme may carry out the hydrolysis of the starch polymers. Conditions are optimized to give good rates of hydrolysis, to minimize inactivation of the enzyme,and to prevent retrogradation and other precipitation reactions of the granule components.


Saccharification provides for the completion of the starch hydrolysis, after liquefaction, to provide high proportion of low molecular weight sugars. A controlled enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis can give syrups with a wide range of compositions and these can be tailored to suit any number of applications.


Isomerization is the process of enzymatically converting dextrose to fructose under the proper controlled conditions.